Monday, December 9, 2019
Question: Discuss about the Employees Will Use Apps To Manage Their Work And Personal Life Better. Answer: Introduction Times are changing like never before. In the fast paced world, technology is providing newer options to have a calculated life. This evolving technology provide challenges for the workplaces in the future, both for the leaders as well as the employees. In the study it is discussed that more and more apps options are available to the employee and employees will use these apps to manage their work and personal life better. The increasingly future usage would require different ways of working both for the leaders, the Human Resource department as well as the employees. The employee today is very cautious for managing their time carefully; in order to effectively use these apps one needs to be techno savvy and should learn to take care of security issues, as the data provided by the employees would be flooded over the web. According to a review of more than 50 apps , it was ascertained that these apps varies from calendaring, note taking, file sharing apps to serene meditation Apps that make the customers to remember to take breaks and be more attentive. The role of leaders is to ensure that the core assets are examined carefully to push the product further. Work is now becoming virtual and can be done anytime and anywhere with the help of personal devices and real time communication. The world is connecting truly with boundary less partnerships with networks and redefining careers which attracts learning, attractiveness and fairness. The management has to ensure that the Rather than having the traditional hierarchies, network structures should be more cooperative and make leadership shared and combined. Implications for Employees Employees are increasingly using more apps to manage both their personal and professional lives. Since few years back , time management apps have multiplied as users all around the world want to grip more productivity even in waking and sleeping hours. People can restrict their time spent on Facebook and concentrate more on their gym by using apps like RescueTime and Toggle. On such apps users can identify a particular task and specify an app to calculate how much time one spends on them. Developers of these apps are further, creating office versions for the professionals shortly. Time management tools are getting much importance these days. The employees feel that especially in a tech job the limited resource is ones own and other people time. More than money, time is a limited resource, therefore these apps are required to manage as well as maximize the resource. Caution on the part of employees while using these apps Employees, who use the apps, promote the use to their counterparts when the issues of productivity and prioritizing crops up in the workplace. In few companies as an internal practice, the teams hold a pitching panel wherein employees could support and promote the acceptance of his or her favorite app. Though it is essential for the users to be technologically equipped, also an efficient business app should be able to separate private data from the business data and give the flexibility to select to report only professional data to avoid piracy issues. The employees need to be extra cautious of their privacy issues in order to use these apps. Though an app that is useful for one may or may not be useful for the other varying upon the working style and the culture of the companies. Time management tools that are designed for the office are complicated than the ones used for private use. It also requires different kinds of data reporting. As, for example, the organization has to select between apps that are from hard drive and the ones that store data in the cloud. These apps will be more and more used in the future as the developers are making it more user friendly and tailor based by taking feedback from the early users to get aid in working out the bugs and have room for more tasks. Types of apps available for emloyees According to a review of more than 50 apps , it was ascertained that these apps varies from calendaring, note taking, file sharing apps to serene meditation Apps that make the customers to remember to take breaks and be more attentive. A recent launched app named Sapience Buddy has called for a wave of self quantification in the U.S, though the largest customers are in Asia Pacific and Europe, but it was America which requested a way to track the personal data. As per the CEO of Timely app, the company targets to end up in large companies (Messinger, 2016). The company started with small self employed professionals and now is moving to the companies. Though the app develops assert that their software has the potential to move up efficiency, but not many have the data to exhibit the increased productivity. Examples of various apps being used The famous brands like Burberry and Starbucks are doing extremely well by offering great app experiences, their apps are as per the individual choices, thereby permitting the companies to target specific messaging to the customer as per the information that the customer likes. Burberry provides to store experience to its customers by providing similar color, design and runway experience to the customers. The Starbucks Mobile order app is also very famous, it allows the consumers to choose their beverages without having to wait in the queue. Even in the hotel industry, hotels use the big data analysis to provide innovative offerings. Hotels have started using collective offerings. Effective leadership along with acceptance of digital is a paramount importance, Digital transformation is not about creating a digital department by recruiting thousands to work for the company with the objective of reaching other thousands through mobile devices on Facebook , Instagram. All it requires is an excellent top down leadership with a reliable message that digitization is not the most happening things to do, rather instead it is a core focus for the industry (Brynjolfsson Mitchell, 2017). Implications for business leaders and managers The implications for business leaders and managers are that they have to follow one or more steps as laid down henceforth. Like Uber and Airbnb it is essential to redesign the industry by completely altering the present industry. Secondly, like the United States post office, the leaders need to redesign the product. Then next step is for the leaders to support in creating a new digital ecosystem. In this ecosystem the sub markets can exit together like Apple and Amazon. The fourth step is to recreate the path to the customer as did by think lemonade.com. In this step the companies have to be separated from their consumers by a mediator on which they are reliant, hence finding out options to reach the consumer without risking the present distribution channel. The next step is to change the value proposition (Huckstep, 2016). For example rideshare insurance like GEICO Farmers, provides not only cover standard personal automobile use as per premiums but also inserts insurance coverage Role of managers and leaders in the world of apps There are certain Proposition for leaders and Managers. There are three components of healthy vision for leadership. Firstly is to define the core assets, when a digital design has to be prepared core assets needs to be examined carefully to push the product further. Example Yellow pages consider their thousand of sales employees as their core assets. They motivate people to convert their paper ads to digital services through YP.com. This site has 55 million customers each month. Similarly, Google has many online customers. Second, is to have a core mission statement for the organization which is not just a slogan, but a transformative statement for changing organization. Like GE has done similar with its Industrial Internet Concept. Example Barnes and Noble mission statement is to operate as a best retail business in the US, apart from the product they sell. Their mission is to exist different from its product they sell and lower the importance of its being a bookseller. It would be better if the mission statement doesnt contradict itself. The third component is comprised of defining results that is for what the company intends to do and how leadership effect will impact the efforts. Burberry CEO Angela Ahrendts did this a decade ago when they first aspired to be a brand that will go for digital luxury fashion house. Today digital is placed at the heart of the Burberry and all is its activities are digital. Their vision of digitalization came from the CEOs vision and thus it became the most liked digital brand. Employees dont accept anything, just like that; they accept it when the vision comes from their leaders. Leaders need to should value of that thing before requesting the staff to accept it. And lastly is Governance, If there is a large company, Managers are requested to take their projects home otherwise the company will end, making multiple apps developed through multiple vendors and all doing the same or the other things related to organization. There should be synchronization among different departments related to communication, coordination, which does not come on its own, but a leader or top management aspires to do so (Harsh, 2017). In other words, good governance will bring consistency and will prevent repetition of tasks; this is the single and most important component of success behind the digital transformation of the project. Role of Leaders in streamling the future of using apps Leaders need to work in a more systematic process, as the future requires them to be systematic in case they want to be successful. In the present times most of the data required to mark, understand and accept for the workforce is not gathered in a systematic way. The paradox of our Information age is, in spite of huge data available online, decision maker usually lacks timely and accurate information at the right time. Example: Although digital technologies are being used in many customer services like to collect data in the US Government or to collect Population survey conducted by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, they are not able to collect accurate data as they dont ask relevant questions. Researchers and Economists try to manage this by doing their own surveys, but again, they lack credibility, scale and scope. Government administrative data like tax forms also provide a good source of data, but this needs to be combined with government survey data to increase its credibility. Changes in organizational structures and role of leadership in relation to it Organizations need to increasingly be transparent towards its stakeholders and needs to be more flexible and transforming towards more balanced and relationship based projects. Talents are engaged on collective purpose. Rather than the traditional hierarchies, network structures should be more cooperative and make leadership shared and combined. Work is now becoming virtual and can be done anytime and anywhere with the help of personal devices and real time communication. The world is connecting truly with boundary less partnerships with networks and redefining careers which attracts learning, attractiveness and fairness. There is a huge change in technology. Instruments like robots, sensors, artificial intelligence and Internet is shaping the work system, making more flexible, transparent and all the workforces are accepting it successfully (RSS, 2015). This leads to business transformation. Organization and workers are balancing flexibility and changes with the help of engaging automation service to adapt to new changes. Human automation services like big data, algorithms are decreasing the work of humans. These works were done by human and is replaced by these services. Organization is designing their work for better optimization rather the becoming an interference in the work. These trends are important to understand for leaders to know where there is organization currently stands and where is it moving towards. It understands how these approaches; strategies are changed to keep up with the organization (Daniel, 2013). Role of HR in supporting the future change process of using more apps by employees Business mobility is becoming popular with a motive of business re-engineering. The behavior of employees will be changed; they will have to collaborate with colleagues in respect to different projects. The HRs role will be to get Rules and regulations incorporated into mobile apps based on an employees role. They would decide how the app will be used. As employees become more mobile and their collaboration is increasing with other colleagues it would result in more security and progress in the mobile application management. To manage security and monitor the next generation mobile apps, IT will have to incorporate powerful policies and rules based on the behavior of the application. Luckily, mobile application solutions are available with more flexibility and it would support HR in the continues monitoring of employees as updates and alerts are sent timely. By providing safe and reliable data on their mobile it will increase its usage and adoption by the users (Boudreau, 2016). This will increase innovation and unleash productivity so that employees can become entrepreneurial in their roles. The HR has a very crucial role to play as a change agent as more autonomy will have to be given to the employees in case they have to successfully fulfill their entrepreneurial role (Bhattacharjee, 2017). Examples of companies where HR has transformed themselves The HR of Companies like Twitter and Uber use lower tech apps which email to their employees asking about their whole day work accomplishment tasks. The idea is to make employees work more as they know email will come at any time. As people are already using time management apps, it will be difficult for business to ask employees to shift to apps rather than leaving their own. The best time management system works only, when it becomes part of their daily work, so swapping it with new rituals might impact their productivity negatively (Glass, 2017)s. Support of HR activities Though , technology is evolving, but management and structure evolve slowly. Earlier, work relationship was faster and cheaper and used by personal devices and human resource information system. This includes call centers, operations from a remote location with software like IBM, Watson, etc. Many HR activities are today supported by automating traditional employment systems and work relationship through smart phones, remote performance etc.New Employment models are evolving which includes projects, gigs, contracts, but their involvement is slow. Innovations can also be in the form of employment systems like freelancers, contractors, recruitment system in organization. This encourages communication using social media tools (WN News, 2017).. Conclusion The study discusses that the future of employees is using more apps to better manage their work effectively. This calls for a lot of implications both from the employees side as well as the leadership and HR side. There are various example discussed in the study about how the apps have changed the life for the better. The Starbucks Mobile order allows the consumers to choose their beverages without having to wait in the queue. Even in the hotel industry, hotels use the big data analysis to provide innovative offerings. Hotels have started using collective offerings. Today digitization is placed at the heart of the most companies and all is its activities are digital. Their vision of digitalization should come from great leadership as the employees dont accept anything, just like that; they accept it when the vision comes from their leaders. Leaders need to value that thing before requesting the staff to accept it. The HRs role will also be increased and altered tremendously from inco rporating rules and regulations into mobile apps based on an employees role to ensuring the email of completion that has to be sent to the employees is timed rightly. References Bhattacharjee, A. (2017, May 02). DigitalTransformation, Humanity the Future - Keynote Address to Corporations . Retrieved from https://techygeekshome.blogspot.in/2017/05/digitaltransformation-humanity-future.html Boudreau, J. (2016, March 17). Work in the Future Will Fall into These 4 Categories. Retrieved from https://hbr.org/2016/03/work-in-the-future-will-fall-into-these-4-categories Brynjolfsson, E., Mitchell, T. (2017, April 17). We Must Track How Technology Is Changing Work. Retrieved from https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/we-must-track-how-technology-is-changing-work/ Daniel, Y. (2013, August). The Future of Mobile Application Management. Retrieved from https://www.wired.com/insights/2013/08/the-future-of-mobile-application-management/ Glass, B. (2017, April 17). Nature: We Must Track How Technology Is Changing Work. Retrieved from https://burning-glass.com/nature/ Harsh, A. (2017, january 05). Digital Transformation, Humanity the Future - Keynote Address to Corporations. Retrieved from https://www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/digital-transformation-humanity-the-future-keynote_us_5907c064e4b084f59b49fc09 Huckstep, R. (2016, September 12). Lemonade are Live. Insurance will never be the same again! Retrieved from https://www.the-digital-insurer.com/blog/insurtech-lemonade-are-here-and-insurance-will-never-be-the-same-again/ Messinger, L. (2016). Do time management apps really make people more productive? Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/business/2015/aug/18/time-management-apps-work-life-balance-productivity RSS. (2015). Do time management apps really make people more productive? Retrieved from https://thecirculareconomist.com/do-time-management-apps-really-make-people-more-productive/ WN News. (2017, April 17). We Must Track How Technology is Changing Work. Retrieved from https://article.wn.com/view/2017/04/17/We_Must_Track_How_Technology_is_Changing_Work/
Posted by Unknown at 11:52 AM
Sunday, December 1, 2019
Religion is not something I am interested in. I am not a religious person, and I hopefully will never be. Today, Religion has become something far from the definition of religion. Christianity has become so messed up that people are scared off by it. There are so many hypocrites who claim to be Christians and they are ruining the true meaning of being a Christian. I think that a Christian truly is a Christ follower. Many Ã¢â¬Å"ChristiansÃ¢â¬ of today do not follow Christ but follow what they believe is right and what is wrong. With so many people making up their own beliefs you have different opinions popping up all over the place. This leads to confusion amongst people who do not understand what being a Christian is about. Today, people will automatically label you if you wear a cross, or claim to be a Christian. I talked to a lady a few weeks ago, on a Sunday, who asked me if I had been to church. We will write a custom essay sample on Religion is Fake or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page I said yes and she began to tell me about how she had started to go to a church by her house but had been asked the week before why she only went on Sunday nights. When she told the lady she had to work, the lady responded by saying, Ã¢â¬Å"Well, Jesus likes to be praised in the morning and at night.Ã¢â¬ This had upset the lady I was talking to and she said she felt it was wrong to judge her like that. I felt so thankful to be able to talk to her because I invited her to my church where we do not believe in judging people. Many of the members of my church are addicts to some substance, abuse victims, divorced people; we even have a group of motorcyclists who are some of the nicest people there. It frustrates me that some people are so harsh to others that it makes them shun Christianity forever. If you think about it, it really is just sad. All the different denominations fight instead of coming together to share the love of Jesus. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s the only true purpose of the churc h, but right now, I believe we arenÃ¢â¬â¢t doing all that could be, and should be done.
Posted by Unknown at 11:35 PM
Tuesday, November 26, 2019
Time Dilation Effects in Physics Time dilation is the phenomenon where two objects moving relative to each other (or even just a different intensity of gravitational field from each other) experience different rates of time flow. Relative Velocity Time Dilation The time dilation seen due to relative velocity stems from special relativity. If two observers, Janet and Jim, are moving in opposite directions and as they pass by each other they note that the other persons watch is ticking slower than their own. If Judy were running alongside Janet at the same speed in the same direction, their watches would be ticking at the same rate, while Jim, going in the opposite direction, sees both of them having slower-ticking watches. Time seems to pass slower for the person being observed than for the observer. Gravitational Time Dilation Time dilation due to being at different distances from a gravitational mass is described in the general theory of relativity. The closer you are to a gravitational mass, the slower your clock seems to be ticking to an observer farther from the mass. When a spaceship nears a black hole of extreme mass, observers see time slowing to a crawl for them. These two forms of time dilation combine for a satellite orbiting a planet. On the one hand, their relative velocity to observers on the ground slows time for the satellite. But the farther distance from the planet means time goes faster on the satellite than on the surface of the planet. These effects may cancel each other, but also can mean a lower satellite has slower-running clocks relative to the surface while higher-orbiting satellites have clocks running faster relative to the surface. Time Dilation Examples The effects of time dilation are used often in science fiction stories, dating back to at least the 1930s. One of the earliest and most well-known thought experiments to feature time dilation is the famous Twin Paradox, which demonstrates the curious effects of time dilation at its most extreme. Time dilation becomes most apparent when one of the objects is moving at nearly the speed of light, but it manifests at even slower speeds. Here are just a few ways we know time dilation actually takes place: Clocks in airplanes click at different rates from clocks on the ground.Putting a clock on a mountain (thus elevating it, but keeping it stationary relative to the ground-based clock) results in slightly different rates.The Global Positioning System (GPS) has to adjust for time dilation. Ground-based devices have to communicate with satellites. To work, they have to be programmed to compensate for the time differences based on their speeds and gravitational influences.Certain unstable particles exist for a very brief period of time before decaying, but scientists can observe them as lasting longerÃ because they are moving so fast that time dilation means the time that the particles experience before decaying is different from the time experienced in the at-rest laboratory that is doing the observations.In 2014, a research team announced the most precise experimental confirmation of this effect yet devised, as described in a Scientific American article. They used a particle accelerat or to confirm that time moves slower for a moving clock than for a stationary one.
Posted by Unknown at 9:16 PM
Saturday, November 23, 2019
Enrollment for the 2015 Freelance Writing Course Opens Today Enrollment for the 2015 Freelance Writing Course Opens Today Enrollment for the 2015 Freelance Writing Course Opens Today By Daniel Scocco As you probably know, once a year we open the enrollment for the Freelance Writing Course. Its a 6-week program that aims to give students all the information and tools they need to get started making money writing online. The 2015 edition starts today. Here are the six modules of the course: 1. Writing Productivity: YouÃ¢â¬â¢ll learn how to become a prolific writer, which is essential if you want to make money writing. 2. Building an Online Presence: Setting up a website is not enough these days. You need to know how to promote it and how to reach the right people online. 3. Writing for the Web: Freelance writing is changing, and this module focuses on the differences youÃ¢â¬â¢ll face while freelance writing for websites and online publications. 4. Finding Clients: Probably the most important module. Here youÃ¢â¬â¢ll learn where and how to find your first clients, and how to obtain high-paying writing gigs over time. 5. Running a Writing Business: Freelance writing is like any business, and as such youÃ¢â¬â¢ll need to manage it efficiently if you want to increase your earnings over time. 6. Social Media: In this module youÃ¢â¬â¢ll discover tactics you can use to leverage social media sites to boost your career. More than 1300 students joined us over the years, and heres what some of them said about the course: I just wanted to let you know how much I enjoyed the online course. I have been researching content on how to establish a freelance writing career since earlier this year and your course provided information that I just havent been able to find anywhere else. Thanks for taking the time to develop this in a straight-forward and manageable fashion. What you supplied has far exceeded my expectations, both in content and value for money. I congratulate you on a job well done. The course has jump started me into action. It has been a huge learning curve for me. Now I am blogging and this course has opened my eyes to the potential of blogging for a freelance writer! I found all the lessons helpful and practical, and help was always at hand in the private forum. The course is great value for money and I am motivated to move into gear now, something that I have not been in a while. > Click here to visit the official page and get all the details < Enrollment ends on Friday. Don't miss out! Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Freelance Writing category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:Possessive of Proper Names Ending in SAt Your DisposalPunctuation Is Powerful
Posted by Unknown at 4:50 AM
Thursday, November 21, 2019
The Origins of First World War - Essay Example Though, taking a retrospective look, James Joll (1984), argued in his book The Origins of the First World War, that German rulers had 'accepted the war as inevitable' by December 1912 itself. But the Germans preferred to wait for the most opportune time. Historians also say that the imperialistic policies of some European nations also contributed to the simmering discontent amongst other nations. Some countries had highly ambitious plans of establishing their colonies in foreign lands. Similarly, some countries had started arming themselves in a big way, which left the neighboring countries apprehensive for their safety and asking for cover for other nations. This polarized the world community. Therefore militarism was another reason for the outbreak of war. Slav nationalism never allowed the Austrians and Russians a peaceful coexistence. The sea route was earlier used basically for exploring far off places, but Britain and Germany also started using the naval forces for strategic ad vantages. Another race started in the two blocks to strengthen the naval forces. Though earlier the use of James Joll (1984) argues that; "The immediate motives which led governments to decide to go to war in 1914 were not directly imperialist, but earlier imperialist policies had contributed to the frame of mind in which decisions were taken. ... Evans and Strandmann (1990) say that apparently the war started off a clear sky, but most of the nations seem to be well prepared for the war. The authors state that, "Everyone seems to have known exactly what to do, and to have done it with great efficiency. Arrangements to take over the Examination Schools and colleges had been made by the War Office two years earlier." Though historians find it very difficult to pinpoint one particular event or one particular day when the war trigger was put on. But the events of June 28, 1914 are still remembered as a turning point (Turner, 1970). It is on this day that, Archduke Francis Ferdinand, heir to throne of Austria-Hungary, and his wife were assassinated (it was their wedding anniversary) in Sarajevo, Bosnia by a Serbian nationalist student. This province had been under Austro-Hungarian Empire since 1908. After this assassination, Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia, followed by the Russian Mobilization the next day. Increasing emphasis on militarism led to the development of new weapons. Simultaneously the emergence of trench warfare made the Great War the bloodiest conflict the world had known (The Birmingham Post, 2004) James Joll prefer to place imperialism, domestic concerns, and the failure of diplomats as the basic reasons for eruption of the full fledged war. In broader terms the origin of First World War can be traced back as the result of a number of reasons. Some such reasons, enlisted by historians, over time are; The rise of German power after 1870 and its Imperialistic designs: Germany used to be a loose confederation of independent states till 1870. On January 18, 1871, these states united under a Prussian king
Posted by Unknown at 4:13 AM
Tuesday, November 19, 2019
Economic Analysis Paper The Professional Sports Industry - Essay Example Growth of public significance of modern sports (mainly big-time sports) allows to consider the sports as a complecated process. Sports as a separate and self-developing phenomenon has not yet become an object of Ã¢â¬Å"classicalÃ¢â¬ sports theory researching. Professionalism of sports at last quater of XX century has got the general character and now it is considered like a natural process. The events and peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s activity in professional sports attracts much attention of population of any country. Sports influences all spheres of life such as economics, poticy and culture. And touches many ethical problems of nowadays environment. It is considered that professional and big-time sports increases the state prestige, peace consolidation, and even popular sports. It is difficult to tell about the health problems which many sportsmen have. It is a fact that most of the sportsmen have serious deseases. Full-time trainings (especially for women and children), off-centred methods which include dopes and stimulators, various injuries, contests and fightings for the first place Ã¢â¬â all these things hurt morally and physically greatly. It is not a secret that very often a criminal cases take place in the professional sports industry. The sports economy has got important quantative and qualitative changes lately. The new technologies of market are in use now and the interaction looks in such a way Ã¢â¬â sports Ã¢â¬â fan, and sports Ã¢â¬â customer. The instruments and methods of management and marketing are actively used now. Along with the perfection and stirring up of the traditional instruments of influence on people (such as cost policy, advertising and quality) new trends got the impulse to development, the promotion of which became possible only with the help of Internet. A new virtual system of Ã¢â¬Å"new economicsÃ¢â¬ began to develop. This system includes a complex of branches and groups of innovation economical activity. In structure of virtual economics of sports the
Posted by Unknown at 6:13 PM
Sunday, November 17, 2019
Ethical Decision making by School Principals Essay Principals are faced with the challenge of managing schools and there is need for them to be ethical, respectful, inspiring, creative and knowledgeable about methods of instruction and the culture of the school and curriculum. These principals are also faced with the challenge of knowing and identifying areas of support that is able to enhance the schoolÃ¢â¬â¢s mission and also manage the areas that impede the achievement of a stated mission of the school. Since the needs of students are ever changing, they should also be in a position to make both smaller and larger adjustments that could be beneficial to the school and easily manageable by the organization in the management of these decisions. (Sousa, 2003, pp. 195-198). A decision is termed as ethical when it is able to bring about positive results and does not harm other people or the third party. These decisions are able to bring forth respect, trust, fairness and caring, responsibility and demonstrate good citizenship. When a decision accomplishes the needs of people together with their purposes, it is then termed as an effective decision. Ethically sound decisions are mostly advanced by two critical aspects namely discernment and discipline. For a decision to poses the aspect of discernment, it requires judgment and knowledge. The strength of character on the other hand, makes up a good decision and this takes moral change and the will power to be able to do what needs to be done (Hoy Tarter 2004, pp. 56-60). Ethical decision making calls for good leadership from principals. Leadership may be described as the authority or ability of an individual or individuals to lead others towards the achievement of a goal. It involves directing and influencing others towards the accomplishment of the stated common objectives and involves responsibility and accountability for the group. There are various leadership styles that are used today in many organizations and institutions. The autocratic type of leaders apply unilateralist while dominating their team-members in order to achieve a particular objective. However, this method often results to resistance from the team- members, as this style generally requires constant pressure and a lot of direction to get things done. On the other hand, this style could be more effective in urgent situations requiring urgent action (Schiminke, 1998, pp. 107-110). In the Laissez-Faire leadership, little control is exercised by managers over their groups. This allows the team-members to sort out their duties and obligations but the manager is not in any way involved with them. This style of leadership however is ineffective at certain circumstances since the team is left floundering with limited motivation and direction. Laissez- faire is effective in cases whereby a manager leads a team that is highly skilled and motivated and these people have in the past produced excellent work. The Democratic leader on other hand often uses participation and the groupsÃ¢â¬â¢ teamwork towards attaining a collaborative decision. This style focuses on communication between the leader and the team and hence a positive climate for achieving results is created. The leaders consult their teams before making a decision while still in control of the team. These leaders allow the team to make decisions on how certain duties will be carried out and by whom (Schiminke, 1998, pp. 107-110). In addition, a good democratic leader is one who approves participation by team members and delegation of duties or tasks is done wisely. This kind of a leader values the points put forward from them and also encourages any group discussion. He also empowers the team through motivation. On leadership styles include a coercive leader, authoritative. Leader, affiliative leader, pace setting and a coaching leader. A coercive leader demands obedience, which should be instantaneous and applies initiative, achievement and self-control. In times of crisis or company turn around, this style is considered to be more effective but it mostly creates a negative climate for the performance in an organization. The authoritative leader on the other hand is considered to be one of the most effective as this leader inspires employees to follow a vision, facilitate change and creates a strong organizational climate that results in positive performance. The affiliative leadership values people, their emotions and their needs and relies on friendship and trust to promote flexibility, innovation and risk taking. A pacesetting leader can create a negative climate because of the high standards he or she sets. This style works best in attaining quick results from highly motivated individuals who value achievement and take the initiative. Lastly, the coaching leader builds a positive climate by developing skills that will foster long-term success. This type of leader also delegates responsibly, and is skillful in issuing assignments that are quite challenging. Leadership entails organizing people in a bid to achieve the stated goals of the group. It is therefore essential that leaders should posses certain basic qualities that will enable them to be effective leaders in whatever situation or task they undertake (Guy, 1990 pp. 105-107). Leaders should display a good work ethic that will enable other employees to emulate. A good work ethic includes: being on time, being organized giving praise to employees, being well prepared for meetings and having good communication within the venture that will go a long way towards achieving emotional and financial success. Therefore a leader should set an example with an ethical set of values for other managers and employees. For a leader to be effective, he/she should be willing to constantly learn at the same time integrate the knowledge they have acquired through learning into their leadership style. They must also develop skills that will promote them into being good leaders. Another quality of a good leader is that they should constantly keep up with the current trends in leadership and be aware that the leadership styles are constantly changing. In other words these leaders should be open to change. A good leader should also be able to mobilize people and acquire their trust in the process. Good leaders should also have the ability to communicate effectively with their subordinates communication is an essential aspect since it involves both listening and sending messages or telling others what needs to be done. Moral leaders are in a position to produce good moral leadership. They mostly apply restraint and power in their leadership. They are willing to accept any results without imposing control on other people. This is stewardship. It enables leaders to accept their faults which are human instead of shielding themselves under their authority and status. Ethics can be described as the codes of conduct that guide on how one should behave regarding moral duties and virtues. These moral principles guide a person in determining what is wrong or right. Morality by principals can be termed as personal ethics. This is because personal ethics reflect the expectations of people of all works in the society. Ethics has got two aspects: the ability to determine right from wrong, propriety from impropriety and good from evil. The second perspective concerns the commitment to perform an action that is proper, right and good. The principles of personal ethics include: trustworthiness and honesty, concern for the well being of others preventing harm refusing to take unfair advantage, respect for the autonomy of others and basic justice. Ethics as displayed by principals in schools or any other leaders could be classified as under written and unwritten codes of ethics: codes of ethics are the efforts which are systematic in nature and are used in defining the right conduct. They also provide guidance and help in the installation of confidence in various aspects of life from the government and all organizations. The main guidance is reflected in the decision making process especially where values seem to conflict. Written codes of ethics can be made known by an organization, professional or jurisdiction. On the other hand unwritten codes that exist and that help us in our lives are more effective than the written ones. Un written codes of ethics include rules such as honesty, security, loyalty among others. These unwritten codes of ethics mostly arise from family and cultural tradition and can also be found in workplace. These written and unwritten codes of ethics mostly arise from family and cultural tradition and can also be found in workplace. These written and unwritten codes of ethics are found in the society and they help one in establishing their personal belief system. Ethical behaviors should be a part and parcel of an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s daily routine (Murphy McMurty, 2000. pp. 110-115). I believe that Principals need to make strategic decisions since society and environment are dynamic and this provides them with a means that is strategic in nature that could enable them consider the external environment by focusing on the strength of the school organization, reducing weaknesses in school and also identify all the available opportunities that could put the school at a better position to be able to gain a competitive advantage. School principals are able to make an ethically defensible decision when the decision is well thought considering all the formal possible angels meaning that everybody takes part in decision making. In addition, ethically sound decisions in corporate all the possible solutions regarding the positive and negative outcomes of the decision. The decisions made by school principles need to involve a consultative process, team or group process or delegated duties to the staff members. This will help principals to come up with an ethically sound decision that will have a positive impact to all the members of the society which includes the students. Today, school leaders are the people who are accountable ethically, legally and morally for any decisions that they make in schools. Dempster and Parry (1999) note that the schools pressure mainly arise from four sources that is pressure of involving non-educationalists in the decision making in schools; changes in the growth of knowledge and applying the new advanced technology in learning processes; increased social problems such as suicide, violence and unemployment. This means that school leaders are constantly faced with ethical dilemmas while making decisions in schools hence resulting in conflicting ethical principles. Therefore how ethics/morals impact on decision-making is profound as this could easily change the way society operates. Foster (1986) also notes that it is the actions by the officials of the school that will strongly determine personal codes of ethics and values (Shapiro, 2000, pp. 120-125). On the ethical decision making by principals in schools, Denig and Quinn (2001) proposed a philosophical model with two moral principles namely; care and justice. They argue that most of the decisions that are made by school leaders, are mainly based on formalism which is policy and law and this is aimed at bringing about the greatest good to all (utilitarianism). In other words, this approach clearly views decision making as a rational approach that involves the use of universal principles. The decision maker performs what is right that could result in good deeds to all rather than individualism hence equity becomes the desirable outcome. They also point out that it is only through making decisions by collaborative means that these leaders can be able to analyze the dilemmas and get prepared to encompass the principle of working together with the school system and this eventually results in making decisions that are ethical (Sousa, 2003, pp. 195-198). Greenfield (19991) on the other hand argues that school leaders experience distinct sets of demands concerning ethics. He notes that schools being moral institutions are designed to bring for the social norms and other principles. They should be able to make decisions that are morally acceptable. He further notes that although schools are charged with the responsibility of creating moral values and making moral decisions by dedicating themselves to promote the well-being of their students, it is surprising that the same students have virtually no right to express themselves to what goes on in their schools and it is for these reasons that the conduct of these school leaders need to be moral (Kowalski, 2001, pp. 5-98). Robert Starratt (1991) also talks of equality in social arrangement benefits by arguing that todayÃ¢â¬â¢s social arrangement results to unequal benefits among people. He argues that school principles should not only behave ethically but also be responsible individuals. Lastly, Green field argues that the authority of the principal is moral and teachers should be convinced that the decisions make by the principal reflects all the values that they support (Nutt, 2002, pp. 50-54). Kidder (1995) defines an ethical dilemma as the responsibilities that people face in making choices between two rights cherished values that conflict are the principle cause of dilemmas. For instance a principal is bound to be faced with a dilemma if at all he/she cherishes both the teacher and student and the teacher decides to enact a policy that will result in low expectations. Some philosophers and thinkers have come up with a number of guidelines that could help to solve these dilemmas faced by school leaders. They argue that leaders should be able and willing to act along the set standards of ethics. They could also address and also should be caring and conscious reflection whenever they lead other people (Nutt, 2002, pp. 50-54). School leaders could also form ethics committees to help them solve ethical dilemmas as these committees could prove helpful in raising the awareness concerning ethical issues, advising educators and also in the formulation of codes of ethics. A quality decision that is made by a school principal will depend on a number of factors made, extent to which others are able to generate a quality solution, how the problem is structured and the degree of commitment. Moreover, decisions made in schools require a lot of staff decision and support. School principals also need to understand the culture of their schools while attempting to make any decisions as this will establish whether the decision made is appropriate for the school. Therefore, these head teachers need to analyze and comprehend any relevant and comprehend any relevant information presented to them together with data. They also need to gather and measure evidence, issue judgments and finally make the necessary decisions. Creativity is essential as these will help in solving any anticipating problems hence development of opportunities for the school. Finally, school principals should be in a position to demonstrate quality judgment. This will enable them to know how and when they need to make any decisions among others. Decisions made by school principals could be autocratic, consultative, Group or Delegated decisions. An autocratic decision is that which the school principal makes it himself / herself by use of the available information or gathered from other groups or people. This therefore requires these school leaders to make appropriate and quick decisions when expected to do them at a particular point in time consultation on the other hand means that a problem has to be shared amongst individuals in order to obtain collective views or ideas but the school principal has to make the final decision afterwards.
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